Vested interests can threaten the integrity of research itself and prevent the general public from accessing “unwelcome” research results. The “Open Science” movement tries to mitigate such risks by increasing the transparency of the research process.
The Open Science Taxonomy
The Open Science movement advocates (i) open access to research publications, (ii) open reproducible research with open data and study protocols, (iii) open science evaluation and reviewing processes, (iv) open science policies and (v) open science tools, such as repositories for data, experimental stimuli and analysis scripts (Pontika et al., 2015). An overview of these components of Open Science can be found in the Foster Open Science taxonomy.
Organisations, Platforms, and Information
- Open Science: https://openscience.com/
- Center for Open Science: https://cos.io/
- Open Knowledge International: https://okfn.org/
- A TED talk by Michael Nielsen about Open Science: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DnWocYKqvhw
- ScienceOpen is a professional networking platform for scholars to enhance their research in the open, make an impact, and receive credit for it.
- Many accounts on Twitter discuss Open Science, see e.g.:
- ScienceOpen: https://twitter.com/Science_Open
- The Road to Open Science Podcast: https://twitter.com/R2OSpodcast
- Center for Open science: https://twitter.com/OSFramework
- PlosOne: https://twitter.com/PLOSONE
- Martin Haspelmath: https://twitter.com/haspelmath
- Dorothy Bishop: https://twitter.com/deevybee
- Open Science: https://twitter.com/_open_science_
Discussions and Publications about Open Science, Replication, Reproducibility, and Statistics
For a recent overview, see:
Christensen, Garret; Wang, Zenan; Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Swanson, Nicholas; Birke, David; Miguel, Edward; Littman, Rebecca. (2020). Open Science Practices are on the Rise: The State of Social Science (3S) Survey. Working Paper Series No. WPS-106. Center for Effective Global Action. University of California, Berkeley.
A recent Twitter thread on Open Science offers more readings and a chance to contribute to a collection of articles, see: https://twitter.com/zerdeve/status/1234906668036608000?s=20. One of the goals of this initiative is to increase diversity in research method syllabi and there is an open archive where you can find and add readings that can contribute towards this goal.
- a special issue of the journal “Perspectives on Psychological Science” (April 2018) that focuses on the relationship between creativity and Open Science
- Amrhein V, Greenland S, MsShane B. 2019 Retire statistical significance. Nature 567, 305–307.(doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00857-9)
- Berez-Kroeker, A. L., Gawne, L., Kung, S. S., Kelly, B. F., Heston, T., Holton, G., … & Meier, R. P. (2018). Reproducible research in linguistics: A position statement on data citation and attribution in our field. Linguistics, 56(1), 1-18.
Carter-Thomas, S., & Rowley-Jolivet, E. (2017). Open science notebooks: New insights, new affordances. Journal of Pragmatics, 116, 64-76. (Note: This paper itself appeared in an Elsevier journal and was actually not Open Access at the time of checking the journal webpage)
- Colquhoun, D. (2017). The reproducibility of research and the misinterpretation of p-values. Royal society open science, 4(12), 171085.
- Coretta, S. (2020, January 22). Open Science in phonetics and phonology. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/4dz5t
- Gigerenzer, G. (2018). Statistical rituals: The replication delusion and how we got there. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1(2), 198-218.
- Haspelmath, M. (2013). Why open-access publication should be nonprofit—a view from the field of theoretical language science. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(57), n.p. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00057.
Lindsay, D. S., Simons, D. J., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2016). Research preregistration 101. APS Observer, 29(10).
Mertzen, D., Lago, S., & Vasishth, S. (2020). The benefits of preregistration for hypothesis-driven bilingualism research. PsyArXiv. February, 28.
Open Science Collaboration. (2012). An open, large-scale, collaborative effort to estimate the reproducibility of psychological science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(6), 657-660.
Open Science Collaboration. (2015). Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349(6251), aac4716.
- Tennant, J., Beamer, J. E., Bosman, J., Brembs, B., Chung, N., Clement, G., … Turner, A. (2019, January 30). Foundations for Open Scholarship Strategy Development. https://doi.org/10.31222/osf.io/b4v8p
- Thompson, W. H., Wright, J., & Bissett, P. G. (2020). Open exploration. eLife, 9, e52157. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.52157
- in German, but Open Access and with many useful references to publications in English at the end of each chapter: Praxishandbuch Open Access (Open Access Handbook)
Open Access Publishing
- Language Science Press publishes Open Access peer-reviewed books in linguistics, including books on research methods. There are no fees for authors or readers and authors retain their copy right so they are free to disseminate their articles, make copies for any use, and/or deposit them in any repository or archive .
- The Directory of Open Access Journals provides a list of Open Access journals – as well as news about Open Access initiatives.
- The Free Journals Network also provides information about Open Access journals.
- PlosOne was the first multidisciplinary peer-reviewed Open Access Journal.
- The following Open Access journals are particularly relevant for psycholinguistics and linguistic fieldwork:
- In 2013, Language, the peer-reviewed journal of the Linguistic Society of America (LSA), started to make content available for free on the LSA website, with all Language content available for free after a one year embargo period.
- The double-blind peer-reviewed, online Open Access journal Language Documentation & Conservation (LD&C) (ISSN 1934-5275) is sponsored by the National Foreign Language Resource Center and published exclusively in electronic form by the University of Hawai‘i Press.
- Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics is a peer-reviewed Open Access journal for general linguistics.
- Collabra: Psychology, the Open Access journal of the Society for the Improvement of Psychological Science, is published by the University of California Press and has the following sections: Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology, Personality Psychology, Clinical Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Organizational Behavior, Methodology and Research Practice
- Many “traditional” journals in linguistics and psychology now have Open Access policies and otherwise engage with the topic, see e.g. DeGruyter’s Open Science blog: https://openscience.com/ .
Some Examples for Open Science Projects in Linguistics
- The CHILDES Database for Child Language Data.
- Dictionaria: an electronic Open Access journal that publishes dictionaries of minor languages in database format
- The Linguistic Annotated Bibliography (LAB) is a searchable web portal for reliable database norms, related programs, and variable calculations. These publications were coded by language, number of stimuli, stimuli type (i.e., words, pictures, symbols), keywords (i.e., frequency, semantics, valence), etc. For more information, see: Buchanan, E. M., Valentine, K. D., & Maxwell, N. (2018). The LAB: Linguistic Annotated Bibliography. (preprint)
- The IRIS database of research materials and data for second language acquisition research. For more information, see: Marsden, E., Thompson, S., & Plonsky, L. (2017). Open science in second language acquisition research: The IRIS repository of research materials and data. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 38, p. 00013). EDP Sciences.
- TulQuest is an interactive space for sharing linguistic questionnaires and elicitation stimuli that were used in linguistic studies.
- The Fieldmanual Archive of the Max-Planck-Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen offers stimulus materials and questionnaires employed in their studies.
- Ambridge, B., Barak, L., Wonnacott, E., Bannard, C., & Sala, G. (2018). Effects of Both Preemption and Entrenchment in the Retreat from Verb Overgeneralization Errors: Four Reanalyses, an Extended Replication, and a Meta-Analytic Synthesis. Collabra: Psychology, 4(1), 23. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/collabra.133